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Studying the Impact of COVID-19: State-Level Data Resources on State Health CompareApril 20, 2020:
Though the spread of disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has impacted the lives of individuals across the United States, the magnitude of the virus' effects has varied greatly across different states. Access to current, accurate state-level data is important in order to inform state researchers, analysts, and policymakers’ efforts to understand and respond to the disparate impacts of COVID-19 on their resident populations.
To that end, this blog provides a high-level overview of a range of data measures currently housed in our online data tool, State Health Compare, as well as a number of related resources that provide more in-depth analysis for certain measures. Notably, estimates for each of the measures listed are available for subpopulations that often highlight persistent disparities in health—a feature that may prove especially useful as calls to further break down data related to COVID-19 into subcategories (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, etc.) to track the impact of the disease on specific populations have recently increased.
Chronic Disease Prevalence
This measure captures the percent of adults who reported having one or more common chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke, or asthma. It includes breakdowns by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. (2005-2010, 2011-2019)*
This measure shows the percent of adults who reported smoking, defined as adults who have smoked 100 or more cigarettes in their lifetime and who currently smoke some days or every day. The measure is broken down by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. (2005-2010, 2011-2019)*
Related Resource: SHADAC researchers used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to produce analyses focused on several different health behaviors, including Adult Smoking and E-cigarette Use in the United States. This blog, part of a spotlight series including binge drinking and obesity, looks at national and state-level rates at which adults with different racial/ethnic backgrounds smoke and vape in 2018 and 2017.
State Health Funding
Medicaid Expenses as Percent of State Budget
This measure captures state and federal spending on Medicaid as a share of each state’s budget. (2000-2018)
Public Health Funding
This measure shows state public health funding per capita by fiscal year. (2005-2019; no data available for 2006)
Related Resource: SHADAC researchers produce an annual brief, Exploring Public Health Indicators with State Health Compare: State Public Health Funding, exploring the wide variation in per capita public health funding by state, and why public health funding data, in conjunction with state performance on other public health indicators, might signal which states are best suited to absorb a potential decrease in funding and which states might be hit hardest.
Access to Health Care
Had Usual Source of Medical Care
This measure counts the percent of people who had a usual source of medical care other than the emergency department (i.e., doctor’s office, clinic, health center, etc.) in the past year. Breakdowns by age and coverage type are also available. (2011-2017)
Adults with No Personal Doctor
This measure denotes the percent of adults without a personal doctor and offers breakdowns by education level and race/ethnicity. (2005-2010, 2011-2019)*
Related Resource: SHADAC recently produced a blog and infographic - Affordability and Access to Care in 2018: Examining Racial and Educational Inequities across the United States (Infographic) - focusing on racial/education inequities in access and ability to afford medical care, using this measure along with estimates for Adults Who Forgo Needed Medical Care.
Broadband Internet Access
This measure shows the percent of households that have a broadband internet subscription (i.e., that pay a cell phone or internet services provider for the service), which includes a cellular data plan, cable, fiber optic, DSL, or satellite internet service. (2016-2018)
Related Resource: A new SHADAC blog explores the way that Internet Access Measures the Impact of the Digital Divide and COVID-19. An initial analysis of the estimates shows variation in access to broadband across states, and reveals disparities by income, rurality, coverage, and disability status.
This measure shows the rates of different types of health insurance coverage, including Medicare, employer-sponsored insurance (ESI), Medicaid, and individual coverage, as well as no insurance coverage. Users can view this measure by a variety of breakdowns, including: age, citizenship, disability status, education, family income, health status, limited English proficiency, marital status, poverty level, race/ethnicity, sex, and work status. (2008-2018)
Health Care Costs and Affordability
People with High Medical Care Cost Burden
This measure highlights the percent of individuals in families where out-of-pocket health care spending, including premiums, has exceeded 10 percent of annual income. Breakdowns by employer coverage, income, and race/ethnicity are available for each state. (2010-2012, 2013-2017, 2017-2018)*
Medical Out-of-Pocket Spending
This measure estimates the annual median family “out-of-pocket” spending, including premiums, on health care costs that are typically not covered by health insurance but paid for out of an individual’s own resources. These costs can include copays for doctor and dentist visits, diagnostic tests, prescription medicine, glasses and contacts, and medical supplies. (2017-2018)
Related Resource: SHADAC used this measure to produce a brief entitled State-level Estimates of Medical Out-of-Pocket Spending for Individuals with Employer-sponsored Insurance Coverage, which shows state variation in medical out-of-pocket spending (with a brief section that also looks at high medical cost burden) for people with employer-sponsored insurance.
High-Deductible Health Plans
This measure reports the percent of private-sector employees enrolled in high-deductible health insurance plans. High-deductible health plans are defined as plans that meet the minimum deductible amount required for Health Savings Account (HSA) eligibility (e.g., $1,350 for an individual and $2,700 for a family in 2018); breakdowns by firm size are offered. (2012-2019)
Average Annual ESI Deductible and Average Annual ESI Premium
This first measure reports the average annual deductible for private-sector workers who receive a health insurance plan through their employer that has a deductible. The second measure reports the average annual premium for private-sector workers who get health insurance through their employer. Both measures can be broken down by plan type (family or single). (2003-2019; partial data for 2002)
Related Resources: SHADAC produces an annual report, the latest being State-level Trends in Employer-sponsored Insurance (ESI), 2014-2018, focused on the more than 62 million private-sector employees enrolled in Employer-Sponsored Insurance (ESI) coverage and their growing out-of-pocket costs. The report includes a narrative summary, interactive map, two-page state profiles, and data tables.
From the data used to produce our annual ESI report, SHADAC researchers also created A Deeper Dive on Employer-sponsored Health Insurance: Costs in Five States in Comparison with the United States; a focused, five state analysis of ESI trends in order to better understand which states are most affected by increasing premiums and deductibles or might have a population with high enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), leaving them financially vulnerable in case of an unexpected health crisis that leads to large medical bills.
Adults Who Forgo Needed Medical Care
The measure indicates the percent of adults in each state who could not get needed medical care due to cost. Breakdowns by education level and race/ethnicity are available for all states. (2005-2010, 2011-2019)
Related Resource: SHADAC recently produced a blog and infographic - Affordability and Access to Care in 2018: Examining Racial and Educational Inequities across the United States (Infographic) - focusing on racial/education inequities in access and ability to afford medical care, using this measure along with estimates for Adults with No Personal Doctor.
Trouble Paying Medical Bills
This measure tracks the rates of individuals who had difficulty paying off medical bills during the past twelve months or that were paying off medical bills over time. The measure can be broken down by age and insurance coverage type. (2011-2017)
Related Resource: In light of rising health care cost burdens, SHADAC produced a blog, Measuring Health Care Affordability with State Health Compare: Trouble Paying Medical Bills, assessing changes and patterns in health care affordability across the United States by tracking the percent of individuals that had difficulty paying off medical bills currently or over time.
For a full overview of all available state-level measures, please visit the “Explore Data” page on State Health Compare, or take a look at our one-page guide to State Health Compare measures and their data sources.
All measures marked with an “*”: This indicates a break in series due to survey changes in either data processing or implementation methodology.